Sunday, May 24, 2020
The effects of Credit Card limit practices of banks on their financial performance and consumer brand preference A Study of Banks in Karachi - Free Essay Example
Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1231 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Cause and effect essay Did you like this example? RESEARCH TITLE: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"The effects of Credit Card limit practices of banks on their financial performance and consumer brand preferenceÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢: DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The effects of Credit Card limit practices of banks on their financial performance and consumer brand preference: A Study of Banks in Karachi" essay for you Create order A Study of Banks in Karachi INTRODUCTION: Many researchers have aimed to find the different levels of customer preferences regarding financial services (Schmidt, Bergsiek Kolesnikova, 2007), (Tarawneh, 2006). Schmidt, Bergsiek and Kolesnikova (2007) have also observed that todayÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s dynamic economy is exposing financial institutions to the increasing competitive forces and performance-oriented pressures. In addition, innovative business ideas and increasing competition increases the challenges for the financial institutions to achieve (Hopkins Hopkins, 1997). Based on these dynamics in the financial service industry (Hopkins Hopkins, 1997), a research study that has been conducted investigated the effects of credit card limits (Ausubel, 1999) on customer brand preference (Schmidt, Bergsiek Kolesnikova, 2007) and bankÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s financial performance (Tarawneh, 2006). In todayÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s time it is very difficult to prejudge the bankÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s credit limit (Feinberg, 2003). In recent years, performance study of banks has received higher attention (Seiford Zhu, 1999). According to the study, bankÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s financial performance includes growth and changeability in the profits of the banks, cash flows and market value of the assets and equity of the financial institutions (Capon, Farley Hoenig, 1990). Moreover, financial institutions lack knowledge about the risk involved with the individual borrower (Dey Mumy, 2005). The goal of this study is to determine customer brand preferences (Schmidt, Bergsiek Kolesnikova, 2007 ) and evaluate bankÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s financial performance (Tarawneh, 2006) based on the factor of credit card limit practices (Dey Mumy, 2005) . This study tries to determine the differences in customer preference in choosing a particular brand (Schmidt, Bergsiek Kolesnikova, 2007) and provide an understanding to what extend financial institutions grow due to the extensive use of credit card limit (Tarawneh, 2006). STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: To study the effects of credit card limits practices of banks on their financial performance and consumer brand preference. MODEL/FRAMEWORK TO BE USED: The Variables on the left side of the Model are treated as a cause of bankÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s financial performance (Tarawneh, 2006) and consumer brand preference (Schmidt, Bergsiek Kolesnikova, 2007) regarding the financial institutions. These variables are taken because no study has been done on such combination in Pakistan. The study will be conducted through testing these variables in the banks of Karachi and through consumers in Karachi to determine the effect of Credit Card limits and practices on the bankÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s financial performance and consumer brand preference. VARIABLE TO BE STUDIED Independent Variable: Credit Card limits practices: Credit Card is a way through which consumers borrow money. By using a credit card, consumers can make purchases without the use of cash (Dey Mumy, 2005). Banks propose a fixed limit to their likely consumers (Dey Mumy, 2005). Dependent Variable: BankÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s Financial Performance- BankÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s capacity to conserve on operating expense they incur in constructing their customer and giving customer services (Pastor, Lovell Tulkens 2001). The higher the financial performance, the higher and more improved will be the activities and functions of the institution (Tarawneh, 2006). Consumer Brand Preference- ConsumerÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s compliance to give an amount for a brand depends on previous experiences (Bronnenberg Dube, 2010). ConsumerÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s choice related to banks according to the frequency of visit to the representative, most preferred modes of communications or services offered by the bank (Chernev, 1997). PROPOSED RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS H1;Higher level of Credit Card Limits has a relation with BankÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s Financial Performance. H2; Higher level of Credit Card Limits has a relation with Consumer brand Preference. SOURCES OF INFORMATION The sources of information are primary as well as secondary which includes the financial reports of the Banks of Karachi along with the consumers availing the financial institutionÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s services. The study will try to reach to the consumers directly engaged with the service for gaining the best available information regarding the effects of credit card limits and practices. SAMPLING TECHNIQUE AND PROCEDURES The study proposes convenience sampling technique which is a non-probability sampling technique where subjects are selected because of their convenient accessibility and proximity to the researcher. The subjects are selected just because they are easiest to recruit for the study and the researcher did not consider selecting subjects that are representative of the entire population. Convenience based sampling is chosen because of the following reasons: Time limitation Resources Limitation The Sampling procedure would be that the researcher visits the concerned organization decided upon and where ever a manager is found willing to participate he/she will be filling the instrument of data collection. SAMPLE SIZE The Study proposes a sample of 250 Consumers who are either consuming the credit card service or any other services provided by different banks. METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE The Survey will be conducted through questionnaires given to the consumers availing bank services to fill out and gather information in order to determine the factor that affects consumerÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s preferences of selecting financial institutions. Then statistical tests will be conducted in order to gather / analyze the results and as far as the procedure is concerned the questionnaires will get filled by getting them filled personally from the consumers of the banks in Karachi. INSTRUMENT/S OF DATA COLLECTION Questionnaires developed will help the study to determine the effect of credit card limits and practices on the bankÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s financial performance and consumer brand preference. Test will be conducted on dependent and independent variables of financial performances of banks and consumer brand preference. The Questionnaire is proposed to have 10 questions, where all the questions are closed ended on the basis of a likert scale. STATISTICAL TESTS TO BE USED Following test would be used to check the variables. Regression To check whether the relation between the variables exist of not. Co-relation To check the magnitude of variables. POSSIBLE RESARCH FINDINGS The research might show the following possible outcomes: Financial Performance of banks has direct relation with the credit limits practices of banks. Consumer Brand Preferences has indirect relation with the credit limits practices of banks. LIST OF REFERNCES Alex Chernev , Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âThe Effect of Common Features on Brand Choice: Moderating Role of Attribute ImportanceÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã , Journal of Consumer Research Inc., Vol 23. Bart J. Bronnenberg, Jean Pierre H. Dube Mathew Gentzkow [July 2010], Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âThe Evolution of Brand Preferences: Evidence from Consumer MigrationÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã , University of Chicago and NBER. Jesus T. Pastor, C. A. Knox Lovell and Henry Tulkens , Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âEvaluating the Financial Performance of Bank BranchesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã , Department of Economics, University of Georgia. Lawrence M. Ausubel , Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âAdverse Selection in the Credit Card MarketÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã , Department of Economics, University of Maryland Lawrence M. Seiford and Joe Zhu [Sept. 1999], Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âProfitability and Marketability of the Top 55 U.S. Commercial BanksÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã , Management Science, Vol 45 No.9, pp 1270-1288. Martina K. Schmidt, Micha Bergsiek and Marina Kolesnikova , Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âCustomer Preference of financial services across the US, Russia and GermanyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã , Journal of International Business and Cultural Studies. Medhat Tarawneh, , Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âA Comparison of Financial Performance in the Banking Sector: Some Evidence from Omani Commercial BanksÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã , International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, Issue 3, Euro Journal Publishing Inc. Noel Capon, John U. Farley, Scott Hoenig , Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âDeterminants of Financial PerformanceÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã , Management Science, Vol 36 No.10, pp 1143-1159. Willie E. Hopkins and Shirley A. Hopkins [Sept.1997], Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âStrategic Planning- Financial Performance Relationships in Banks; A Causal ExaminationÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã , Strategic Management Journal, Vol 18 No.8 pp 635-652, published by: John Willey Sons. Robert M. Feinberg [Jul., 2003], Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âThe Determinants of Bank Rates in Local Consumer Lending Markets: Comparing Market and Institution-Level ResultsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã , Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 70, No. 1, pp. 144-156.
Thursday, May 14, 2020
1) Baseline Description Early After the Crash The first few days following the crash of the Uruguayan Air Force plane carrying 45 passengers en route to Chile was surely made out to be some of the hardest days throughout what would become an amazing 72 day fight for survival. In the first few days the team had to fight through anxiety, mental instability, chaos, and perhaps the most important barricadeÃ¢â¬âthe fight to stay unified, positive and team-orientated. This is what makes it such an amazing story because without the strong team development and commitment, survival would not have been possible. Prior to the announcement that the search party had ceased its efforts, the group was just waiting and depending on the search party to findÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦On the fourth day the team saw the plane that flew by and tipped its wings. This sparked false hope, which led to the storming stage of team development. Everyone believed that they were saved; consequently, they ate and drank what little food and wine they had. Members of the team had broken the rationing guideline and Antonio had to manage the conflict which involved reprimanding the team after they violated the Ã¢â¬Ëteam contractÃ¢â¬â¢. The next stage entered was norming. After the search had been called off, Nando created the new goal for the team of getting out of there themselves. Nando and Canessa enhanced team commitment and focus by getting team members to cannibalize. The team then went back to the storming stage of team development. This was reflected by a couple conflicts. First, there was the conflict with the transportation of the batteries and how it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t possible. As well as the conflict of trying to bring the radio to the batteries in the tail and the disagreements of which group members were going to partake in this event. Canessa used a forcing approach to influence the group memberÃ¢â¬â¢s participation. Finally, the team had reached the most desirable and effective level of functioning, the performing stage of team development. The three team leaders embarked on an unknown journey to find help. They fostered extraordinary performance and developed a clear mission which involved over the top commitment to the team and theirShow MoreRelatedEssay on Portrayals of John Anderton1095 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesexists in Philip K. DickÃ¢â¬â¢s famous short story, The Minority Report. Using the adaptation made by screenwriters, Scott Frank and Jon Cohen, DreamWorks was able to release the film version of DickÃ¢â¬â¢s short story in 2002. Furthermore, this futuristic age film was directed by the famous director, Stephen Spielberg. The main focus of the short story and film surrounds the lead character John Anderton and his efforts to understand the minority report. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020
During their southward travels to Camelot, Taran and Ero acted as father and son, they hunted, and Taran discovered his father Ã¢â¬â it still seemed strange to refer to Ero as Ã¢â¬Å"fatherÃ¢â¬ in his mind Ã¢â¬â was an excellent shot with a bow and arrow. Taran was a decent shot, too, though Kahl never was. Taran caught himself constantly watching Ero for clues about TaranÃ¢â¬â¢s own history and development. Ero had a quirk where he often opened and closed his jaw to loosen it, and Taran had always done the same. But beyond those quirks, it was EroÃ¢â¬â¢s temperament that Taran felt matched his own so closely. Ero was reserved, though humorous around those whom he knew, often shy, and held strong beliefs about the equality and justice. The two were more alike than Taran had ever dreamed. What would have been otherwise a long anadromous trip in biting cold, Taran found himself happier than ever. Every morning he woke, the day seemed full of new possibilities. He was no longer anchored by KahlÃ¢â¬â¢s legacy. He had a father and a betrothed who loved him. This was the happiest he had ever been. Even so, he missed Veerah terribly, but picturing her kisses and erotic touches as he rode soothes the ache. He would be back in her arms and bed soon enough. Meanwhile, he would treasure this time with Ero, as it was unlikely they could ever act as father and son again. They were closing in on the end of a fortnight of travel, and Camelot was a mere two-daysÃ¢â¬â¢ ride now. They would arrive early for the wedding and
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Extinct Animals Research Essay : Woolly Mammoth: We have learned much aboutthe Woolly Mammoth almost more than any other dinosaur that has been identified. Due to the fact that the Woolly Mammoth so closely resembles todays elephants,care for them would most probably require most of the same factors to keep italive. -=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-* Copyright DueNow.com Inc. *Category:SciencePaper Title:Extinct Animals Research: Woolly MammothText:We have learned much about the Woolly Mammoth almost more than any otherdinosaur that has been identified. Due to the fact that the Woolly Mammoth soclosely resembles todays elephants, care for them would most probably requiremost of the same factors to keep it alive. Since the Woolly Mammoth has beenextinct for 4000 years, it is difficult to tell exactly what they lived on, butwe can hypothesize. The Woolly Mammoth lived during the Ice Age, so if alive today, it must bekept in a tundra environment. For food, only basic tundra vegetation isnecessary. Due to the thick pelt that the Woolly Mammoth has, any known Ice Agetemperatures would suffice since the thick fur protects the animal in anyextreme temperatures. Large enclosures would not be needed as they would be for a normal elephantsince the Woolly Mammoth is only three meters high. The huge tusks would allowit to scavenge for its own food, so no special feedings would be necessary. Feedings would also be needed on a less frequent basis since the Woolly Mammoth,much like todays camels, keeps under its sloping back a thick layer of blubberas nutrition when food was not needed. The problem in keeping a creature such as the Woolly Mammoth in a zoo- likesurrounding would be poachers. Due to the endangerment of such a magnificentspecies, poachers of pelts and ivory would most certainly be after its hugetusks and thick furs, so it would be necessary to post guards around its cageat all times. A large-scale habitat would be constructed for this creature since, duringthe period it lived, the Pleistocene, there were no restrictions on the placesit could roam to. There was nothing stopping this beast from stomping along towherever it wanted to go. A Woolly Mammoth might find it peculiar to be stuck ina twenty foot ice field with no predators or other animals whatsoever. To solve this problem, it would be possible to include other animals from theWoolly Mammoths time period. -=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-
Sunday, April 5, 2020
Anna Pavlova Dates: January 31 (February 12 in the new calendar), 1881 - January 23, 1931 Occupation: dancer, Russian ballerinaKnown for: Anna Pavlova is especially remembered for her portrayal of a swan, in The Dying Swan.Also known as: Anna Matveyevna Pavlova or Anna Pavlovna Pavlova Anna Pavlova Biography: Anna Pavlova, born in Russia in 1881, was the daughter of a laundry-woman. Her father may have been a young Jewish soldier and businessman; she took the last name of her mothers later husband who likely adopted her when she was about three years old. When she saw The Sleeping Beauty performed, Anna Pavlova decided to become a dancer, and entered the Imperial Ballet School at ten. She worked very hard there, and on graduation began to perform at the Maryinsky (or Mariinsky) Theatre, debuting on September 19, 1899. In 1907, Anna Pavlova began her first tour, to Moscow, and by 1910 was appearing at the Metropolitan Opera House in America. She settled in England in 1912. When, in 1914, she was traveling through Germany on her way to England when Germany declared war on Russia, her connection to Russia was for all intents broken. For the rest of her life, Anna Pavlova toured the world with her own company and kept a home in London, where her exotic pets were constant company when she was there. Victor DandrÃ ©, her manager, was also her companion, and may have been her husband; she herself distracted from clear answers on that. While her contemporary, Isadora Duncan, introduced revolutionary innovations to dance, Anna Pavlova remained largely committed to the classic style. She was known for her daintiness, frailness, lightness and both wittiness and pathos. Her last world tour was in 1928-29 and her last performance in England in 1930. Anna Pavlova appeared in a few silent films: one, The Immortal Swan, she shot in 1924 but it was not shown until after her death it originally toured theaters in 1935-1936 in special showings, then was released more generally in 1956. Anna Pavlova died of pleurisy in the Netherlands in 1931, having refused to have surgery, reportedly declaring, If I cant dance then Id rather be dead. Print Bibliography - Biographies and Dance Histories: Algeranoff. My Years With Pavlova. 1957.Beaumont, Cyril. Anna Pavlova. 1932.DandrÃ ©, Victor. Anna Pavlova in Art and Life. 1932.Fonteyn, Margo. Pavlova: Repertoire of a Legend. 1980.Franks, A. H., editor. Pavlova: A Biography. 1956.Kerensky, Oleg. Anna Pavlova. London, 1973.Gaevsky, Vadim. The Russian Ballet - A Russian World: Russian Ballet from Anna Pavlova to Rudolf Nureyev. 1997.Krasovskaya, Vera. Anna Pavlova. 1964.Krasovskaya, Vera. Russian Ballet Theatre at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century vol. 2. 1972.Money, Keith. Anna Pavlova: Her Life and Art. 1982.Lazzarini, John and Roberta. Pavlova. 1980.Magriel, Paul. Pavlova. 1947.Valerian, Svetlov. Anna Pavlova. London, 1930.International Dictionary of Ballet. 1993. Includes an inclusive list of her roles and a more complete bibliography. Print Bibliography - Childrens Books: Anna Pavlova. I Dreamed I Was a Ballerina. Illustrated by Edgar Degas. Ages 4-8.Allman, Barbara. Dance of the Swan: A Story About Anna Pavlova (A Creative Minds Biography). Illustrated by Shelly O. Haas. Ages 4-8.Levine, Ellen. Anna Pavlova: Genius of the Dance. 1995.
Sunday, March 8, 2020
Personality and Leadership Essays Personality and Leadership Essay Personality and Leadership Essay A Comparing Traits and Skills Theories Impact on Leadership Robert L. Reese Grand Canyon university October 1st, 2014 Introduction In this review (see table 1) two empirical articles were compared, one that reviewed Trait Theory of leadership, and the other that reviewed Skills Theory of leadership. Personality and Leadership: A Qualitative and Quantitative Review, authored by Timothy A. Judge, Joyce E. Bono, Reams lies, and Megan W. Gerhardt conducted quantifiable evaluations of the connection between character traits and Leadership. The rationale of this research study was the existence of unreliable and inadequate results from prior examinations that have, until recently, provided a deficient configuration for categorizing and consolidating qualities. The authors were able to build a strong case based for their approach; by using the five-factor model of personality as a unifying structure to predict relationships between character traits and leadership. Additionally, there were relationships containing several standards were used, because of the apprehension with past personality trait research as to whether comprehensive or precise character traits forecast leadership? The article further investigates the comparative projective power of wide-ranging versus precise measures of these five traits (Timothy A. Judge, 2002). The leadership skills strapless: Leadership skill requirements across organizational levels the authors Troy V. Uniform, Michael A. Champion, Frederick P. Morrison; endeavors to not classify the features of leaders (that has had a varying history of success), but instead focuses attention directly on the job requirements of the leader, as well as the skills it squires, not focusing on the person. A further consideration of the skills required for leadership across an organizations level is examined by Identifying four distinctive classifications of leadership skill requirements that occur across structural levels. According to this article, the requirements for leadership are described as being stratified on one hand, yet a complex of various classifications. As such, skills needed for leadership can be described using a strapless selling the stratification and multifaceted nature of the skills required for leadership and the correlation within The research questions posed by Judge, et. Al (2002) in the research examination of the five-factor model of personality and how this model relates to leadership : 1 What are the associations between personality traits and leadership? 2. ) What is the overall connection among the Big Five character traits and leadership? (the Big Five character traits are defined in this article as: Neurotics, Extroversion, Openness, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness) 3. ) What is the relationship that lower level personality constructs have to leadership? (Timothy A. Judge, 2002) In the research inducted Uniform, et. Al. Several questions were posed in the form of hypotheses: (1) Will the Cognitive, Interpersonal, Business, and Strategic skill categories be empirically distinguishable in relation leadership? (2) How will Leadership skills requirements will vary by skill category such that Cognitive skills will be needed the greatest amount, followed by Interpersonal, Business, and Strategic skills, respectively? (3) Will Cognitive, Interpersonal, Business, and Strategic skill requirements will be positively related to the Jobs level in the organization? How will the skills required in leadership interact within different organizational level? For example: a. Which skill requirements will be more strongly related to organizational level; strategic, cognitive, interpersonal, and/or business skills; b. Will the business skill requirements needed of leaders be more strongly related to organizational level than cognitive or interpersonal skills; and c. Will the interpersonal skill requirements needed for leaders be more strongly related to organizational level than cognitive skills? (Troy V. Uniform, 2007 ). Sample Populations The two articles reviewed used different methods with different characteristics and or qualities, as well as examining two distinctly different theories related to leadership. Judge, et. Al. (2002) samples consisted of 1023 professional employees within international agencies of the United States government. These people were working within five different career fields and encompassed 1 56 different countries.. The organizational positions examined included people that were involved in supervision of the purchasing of goods and services, managing financial endeavors, and negotiating and monitoring contracts. The personnel were selected from different levels within the organization; Juniors with 1-5 years of experience, mid- level with 6-20 years, and seniors with 21+ years (Timothy A. Judge, 2002). In the research conducted by Uniform, et. Al. (2007) an examination 998 plus past studies was conducted. Searches of articles were conducted and this resulted in 1,447 abstracts, 263 Journal articles and 77 dissertations. Of these articles used sixty studies were examined with 73 independent samples in all, which contained 222 associations that were categorized into one or more of the traits. In addition the article, examined 20 studies relating self-esteem or locus of control, together with two of the 60 five-factor model studies. However when research on leadership (before 1950) failed to report the information necessary to obtain a linkage, these were excluded by the current research. Also, the articles omitted studies that defined leadership related to salary level, career success, or the person most liked by peers exclusively. Studies that were included in the examination, were studies defined as representing leader development or leadership effectiveness based on the authors Within the research study Personality and Leadership: A Qualitative and Quantitative Review (2002) Judge et. Al the following results were determined. First, Extroversion showed the most closely related correlation to leadership, then Conscientiousness and then Neurotics. Also, Openness to Experience showed a correlation with leadership but was the weakest correlation of the areas researched. This indicated confidence that the relationship of four of the Big Five traits were distinctive when examined across situations. Finally, Agreeableness presented a moderately weak connection with leadership. However, four characteristics displayed reasonably strong associations with leadership?sociability, dominance, achievement and dependability. Two personality traits, Extroversion and Openness, were significantly predictive of leadership across the criteria studied. Results in the Judge et. Al. (2002) study offers strong evidence in favor of the personality trait method and suggests that research on the characteristics of leadership has evolved (Timothy A. Judge, 2002). In the Uniform, et. Al. Search study of the leadership skill requirements across organizational levels, the results supported the four-factor model of dervish skill requirements and the question presents in Hypothesis number one. Cognitive skills were higher than Business skills although they both showed movement in the predicted directions and were not statistically noteworthy. Thus according to this study, hypothesis two was somewhat supported. Hypothesis three, through the research received full support, because leadership skill requirements increased with organizational level on which the leader was. Results indicated that the relationship between the skill requirements of leadership and organizational bevel was stronger for strategic skills than for interpersonal and cognitive skill requirements, and this provides partial support for hypothesis four (a). Hypothesis four (b) was fully supported within the research by the relationship demonstrated between skill level and organizational level being stronger for business skill requirements than for interpersonal and cognitive skill requirements. Finally, hypothesis four (c) was also completely supported, because the difference between the leadership skill requirements-to-organizational level correlation; was significant for interpersonal and cognitive skill requirements. Finally, Uniform, et. Al. Proposed a hypothetically rich leadership skills order, and tested this hierarchy in a sample of over 1000 lower, middle, and upper level leaders, these results provided support for the model and its key hypotheses (Troy V. Uniform, 2007 Conclusion Within their research study Personality and Leadership: A Qualitative and Quantitative Review (2002) Judge et. L. Searches were conducted for studies on personality traits-to-leadership relationship in two phases; (1) entering the keywords personality and leadership along with each of the Big Five traits in a database, (2) urinals were manually searched that were thought to be particularly relevant, then (3) the database was searched using leadership and 48 other traits such as; self- esteem, locus of control, modesty, and self-control that were known to have been studied as directly related to leadership (Bass, 1990) (Timothy A. Judge, 2002). The article, The leadership skills strapless: Leadership skill requirements across organizational levels by Uniform et. Al. (2007), examines previous conceptualizations of leadership skill requirements and suggests that this can be understood in terms of and (4) Strategic skills (Troy V. Uniform, 2007 The research study of Personality and Leadership: A Qualitative and Quantitative Review (2002) Judge et. Al. Discusses the following limitations. In the review and subsequent research it was found to be important to determine which traits are relevant, as well as why. Within this study these process oriented issues could not be addressed. According to the authors there are many situational reasons that may impact the validity of personality characteristics in actually predicting leadership. A drawback of the meta-analysis within the study was that there may be representative effects on the lower order rats. Specifically, personality traits within a particular Big Five dimension may be differentially connected to leadership across the settings. Judge, et. Al. (2002) point out using the example, that dominance may display greater association with leadership in student settings than in military or government settings (Timothy A. Judge, 2002). In Uniform, et. Al. Research study of the leadership skill necessities across structural levels, limitations were examined by looking toward what would be appropriate for future research. According to the authors future research will have to cake advantage of the conceptual and concrete findings and further experiment with the model in throughout other organizations. Furthermore, future research must refine management development, placement, and selection systems in within different organizations. Finally, other researchers should explore the degree to which these results can be replicated when other information is taken into consideration and determine the impact leadership skill requirements (Troy V. Uniform, 2007 ). References Bass, B. M. (1990). Bass and Goodwills handbook of leadership. New York: Free Press. Timothy A. Judge, J. E. (2002). Personality and Leadership: A Qualitative and Quantitative Review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 765-780. Troy V. Uniform, M. A. (2007 ). The leadership skills strapless: Leadership skill requirements across organizational levels. The Leadership Quarterly, 154-166. Appendix Comparison Matrix Article 1 Article 2 Title/Author(s) Personality and Leadership: A Qualitative and Quantitative Review Authors: Timothy A. Judge, Joyce E. Bono, Reams Lies, and Megan W. Gerhardt The leadership skills strapless: Leadership skill requirements across organizational levels Authors: Troy V. Uniform, Michael A. Champion, Frederick P. Morrison http://library. GU. Deed:2048/login? URL=http://search. Boycotts. Com. Library. GU. Deed: 2048/gin. Asps? Direct=truedb=bthAN=12130448site=eds-livescope=site http:// library. Cue. Deed:2048/login? URL=http://search. Boycotts. Com. Library. GU. Deed:2048/ login. Asps? Direct=truedb=bthAN=24385837site=eds-livescope=site Purpose of the Study What is the authors rationale for selecting this topic? Does he build a strong case? The purpose of this article was to provide a quantitative review of the relationship teen personality and Leadership. The rationale for this study is; the inconsistent and disappointing results from previous reviews are that, until recently, we have lacked a taxonomic structure for classifying and organizing traits. I believe the authors build a strong case based on their approach; they use the five-factor model of personality as an organizing framework to estimate relations between personality and leadership. Furthermore, we estimate relations involving multiple criteria, also because there is much concern in personality research about whether broad or specific personality traits best redirect criteria (Block, 1995; Hough, 1992), they investigate the relative predictive power of broad versus specific measures of The Big Five traits. Focus is shifted from the person holding the Job (I. E. , the leader) to the Job itself. Thus, instead of attempting to identify the characteristics of leaders (which has had a checkered history of success), the focus is squarely on the Job of the leader, and the skills it requires. We seek to further our understanding of leadership skill requirements across organizational levels by identifying four distinct categories of leadership skill acquirement that emerge differentially across organizational levels. Leadership skill requirements are often described as being stratified by organizational level and a complex of multiple categories. As such, leadership skill requirements across organizational levels can be usefully described using a strapless. The term strapless captures the stratified and complex nature of the leadership skill requirements and their relationship with level in the organization. Research Question(s) What question(s) does the author present? They present these as possible questions but not directly as questions: What is the engages between personality and Leadership? What is the overall relationship between the Big Five traits and leadership? Relationship of lower order personality constructs to leadership? Hypotheses: (1) The Cognitive, Interpersonal, Business, and Strategic skill categories will be empirically distinguishable. (2) Leadership skill requirements will vary by skill category such that Business, and Strategic skills, respectively. (3) Cognitive, Interpersonal, Business, and Strategic skill requirements will be positively related to the Jobs level in the organization. 4) Leadership skill requirements will interact with organizational level such that: a. Strategic skill requirements will be more strongly related to organizational level than Cognitive, Interpersonal, and Business skill requirements; b. Business skill requirements will be more strongly related to organizational level than Cognitive or Interpersonal skill requirements; and c. Interpersonal skill requirements will be more strongly related to organizational level than Cognitive skill requirements. Literature Review How is this organized? What are the main themes found in the review? Who are the main authors used? They conducted searches for studies on the personality- leadership relationship in two stages; (1) first entering the keywords personality and leadership and each of the Big Five traits and leadership in the Psychology database, (2) manually searched Journals thought to be particularly relevant, (3) searched the database using leadership and 48 additional traits (e. G. , self-esteem, locus of control, modesty, and self-control) known to have been studied in relationship to leadership (Bass, 1990). Previous conceptualizations of leadership skill requirements (Connelly et al. , 2000; Kananga Miser, 1992; Katz Kahn, 1978; Luau, Newman, Broadening, 1980; Mahoney, Jeered, Carroll, 1965; Integers, 1973; Uniform, Marks, Connelly, Carrot, Ritter-Palmtop, 2000; Carrot, 2001) suggest they can be understood in terms of four general categories: (1) Cognitive skills, (2) Interpersonal skills, (3) Business skills, and (4) Strategic skills. Table 1 summarizes how past research into leadership skill requirements are related to these four categories. Sample Population(s) What group(s) is/are being studied? 998 studies; (2) This search resulted in 1,447 abstracts, (3) the remaining 263 Journal articles and 77 doctoral dissertations, Sixty studies (73 independent samples in all), containing 222 correlations that were classified into one or more of the five-factor traits, met these criteria. Additionally, 20 studies involving self-esteem or locus of control was coded, including two of the 60 five-factor model studies noted above. Early studies on leadership (pre-1950) failed to report the data necessary to obtain a career success, or the person most liked by peers. We also excluded self-reports of leadership. In terms of the criterion, studies were coded as representing leader emergence or leadership effectiveness based on our a priori definitions. The sample consisted of 1023 professional employees working in an international agency of the U. S. Government. These employees were generalists working in five different career specialties in 156 different countries, including the United States. Administrative positions involved overseeing procurement of goods and services, managing financial operations, and negotiating and monitoring contracts with various external groups. The employees were sampled from three levels in the organization that will be offered to as Junior (1-5 years experience), mid-level (6-20 years), and senior (21+ years). Limitations What are the limitations of the study? Why can it only encompass so much? They have a relatively poor idea of not only which traits are relevant, but why. The study could not address these process oriented Issues. There are many situational factors that may moderate the validity of personality in predicting leadership. A limitation of the meta-analysis is that there may be nested representative effects involving the lower order traits. Specifically, traits within a Big Five dimension may be differentially associated with leadership across the study settings. For example, dominance may display greater associations with leadership in student settings than in military or government settings. Future research will take advantage of the conceptual and practical findings and further test the model in other organizations, as well as refine management development, placement, and selection systems in organizations. Future research should explore the extent to which the results replicate when other sources of information are drawn upon to determine the leadership skill Results/ Conclusions What did the author find through the study? Was the original question answered? Correlate of leadership. Conscientiousness and then Neurotics and Openness to Experience displayed the next strongest correlations with leadership. Indicating that we can be confident that the relationship of four of the Big Five traits to leadership is distinguishable from zero across situations. Finally, Agreeableness showed a relatively weak correlation with leadership. Four traits displayed moderately strong correlations with leadership?sociability, dominance, achievement and dependability. Two traits, Extroversion and Openness, were significantly predictive of leadership across the criteria. Results in this study provide strong evidence in favor of the trait approach and suggest that we have come a long way since J. A. Murphy (1941) remarked, Leadership does not reside in the person (p. 674), and Jenkins (1947) concluded, No single trait or group of characteristics has been isolated which sets off the leader from members of his group (up. 74-75). This provides support for the four-factor model of leadership skill requirements and Hypothesis 1 . Cognitive was higher than Business. Other mean differences, although in the predicted direction, were not statistically significant. Thus, Hypothesis 2 was partially supported. Hypothesis 3 received full support. This relationship is illustrated in Fig. 2, which shows that leadership skill requirements increase with organizational level? Results indicate that the relationship between leadership skill requirements and organizational level is stronger for Strategic skill requirements than for Interpersonal and Cognitive skill requirements, providing partial support for Hypothesis AAA. Hypothesis b was fully supported in that the relationship between skill level and organizational level was stronger for Business skill requirements than for Interpersonal and Cognitive skill requirements. Finally, Hypothesis c was also fully supported, as the difference between the leadership skill-organizational level correlation for Interpersonal and Cognitive skill requirements was significant. The paper has proposed a theoretically rich leadership skills hierarchy, and tested that hierarchy in a sample of over 1000 lower, mid, and upper level leaders. Results provide support for the model and its key hypotheses.
Friday, February 21, 2020
Nasser Speaks - Assignment Example Everything in this piece of work is mixed up as though one was observing a real life development than in a piece of writing such as in a book which one would expect to be more systematic and follow chapters, and subheadings. An example is when the writer talks about family panning, development in agriculture and the exploitation of natural recourses all in one paragraph and in a manner to suggest that they are all related subjects to the point he is trying to make. One can only assume that that is the way of reasoning within his cultural context where everything is thought of a whole and where everything interacts with everything else in one big complicated whole. That having being said the writer presents solutions to developmental challenges, which are present in Egypt, and gives solutions to them. He also proposes a workable solution to the present day issues of governance which he thinks should mix the past (feudalism) and the present, democracy and the tribal (socialism).In fact what he is proposing is a mix of democratic capitalism with a hint of socialist tendencies. In all this, he does not fail to remind his people and their fellow Arab states of their need to unite and develop for the future in order to consolidate their power as a block through allegiance and economic power. The writer sees the world in two views: the world of the Arab and the others. There is also an attempt at reminding the Arab world of their heritage and the need to fight against imperialists. Although they are not expressly mention, one can deduce from the dialogue that it is western nations. This is because of the need to defend the Arab way of life and their tribal creeds, which have only been threatened by western occupation and civilization. This work therefore comes forth as a personal expression of life in Egypt. The definations, solutions and